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Giulio Andreotti: tenacious Italian prime minister

controversial leader at the center of Italian politics for 50 years

Giulio Andreotti, who has died aged 94, was the last Prime Italian politics. For half a century has been the heart of power. His stay in the upper echelons of the government was without equal in Europe. Since the early 1960s until the early 90s, it was - almost continuously - or the Prime Minister or Minister of State

Andreotti was all but six of the 45 governments that ran from May 1947-April 1992 took seven of them, and several times was the Minister of Defence, Foreign Affairs ( five times), finance, treasury, and interior. He served as prime minister for more than any other Italian politician after the war, Silvio Berlusconi, with the exception, however, never took the Christian Democratic Party.

His tenacity to stay in the heart of the issues became a source of fascination in itself. As Julius Caesar became Divo Giulio, the god of July, so the filmmakers Il Divo 2008 biopic Andreotti, attributed to Giulio pragmatic powers seemingly mesmeric modern infinitely more striking its surface monotony.

Andreotti was the most controversial figure in the politics of what became known as the First Italian Republic (1946 to the political and constitutional crisis of 1992-1994). As a senior Christian Democrat, who played an important role in all the major political spectrum while not having a major policy initiative. Some of the many causes of Italy celebrates left spotless surrounding the construction of the Rome Fiumicino's main airport, which opened in 1961, banking scandals difficulty of Roberto Calvi, found hanging under Blackfriars Bridge in London, in June 1982 and Michele Sindona found poisoned in his cell in 1986 while serving a life sentence for murder.


parliament called 27 times to be allowed to investigate Andreotti, and 27 times the Parliament rejected the request. However, he was never directly involved, and much less pronounced in the most important of all, the mother of all scandals, the great Tangentopoli ("Tangentopoli") issue of 1990, which overthrew the Christian Democratic Party with the other four parties that make up nearly all the governments of the First Republic. Andreotti's personality and especially his closest political convictions, remained shrouded in mystery - a remarkable achievement for someone so often in the public eye, so often discussed in the press and judges often interviewed and so prolific writer

The most powerful men lives modestly with his wife, Livia, whom he married in 1945 and with whom he had two son and two daughters. Andreotti, who had interceded for endless argument as a true


(sponsor), do not use their power to pursue personal wealth or improve the prospects for their kin .

had a slight deformity of the spine that gave him a front porch, which was used by cartoonists to represent him as a hunchback dwarf evil (actually quite large), with disproportionately large ears, always dressed in black, lurking in the dark corners of the Republic, which holds the power of the political puppet show developed year after year.

was born in Rome. Giulio His father died when he was two years old, and the family survived the mother of the unfortunate widow. While in college, he joined the Federation of Italian Catholic University students and became president in February 1942. This allowed him to meet and befriend many characters that dominate post-Fascist Italy. Andreotti earned a first class degree in law from the University of Rome in 1941, specializing in ecclesiastical law.

Her frail physical prevented him from being drafted, but not spend more than World War II, considerable network connections and make friends of different political shades. In the last days of the fascist regime, Andreotti grown vigorously throughout the Catholic establishment, especially the notables who had spent years of fascism low altitude, in anticipation of a change of fortune.

Having got his ass vigorously set about the organization of the new generation of Catholic intellectuals and politicians. When he was 23, Andreotti knew everyone who was anyone in the Catholic community in Rome, that Pope Pius XII, Alcide de Gasperi (co-founder of the Christian Democratic Party and Prime Minister from 1945 to 1953 ) and Giovanni Battista Montini, then advise the Pope largest in 1944 at the age of 25 years, Andreotti became a member of the National Council of Christian Democracy-ups. In 1946 he was elected to the Assembly as a representative of Rome. He was then elected to all parliamentary elections until 1991, when he was appointed senator for life (one of the five of these messages in the gift of the Presidency of the Republic).

control over the apparatus of the Christian Democratic party in Rome and beyond has been overwhelming. He was seen by the upper echelons of the public service to be "your" man. He also had confidence that the Vatican and the most important property of Rome and banking interests. One result of this meticulous and painstaking accumulation of power was generally able to conduct the voting chart personal preferences in all elections (in the old electoral system, voters could indicate, after voting for a party? Which candidates on the list who prefer).

In 1947, De Gasperi was appointed Deputy Secretary of the Presidency. This cabinet post - equivalent to a minister without portfolio - which allowed him to be the center of all activities of the government. It was, indeed, the Prime Minister primary fixative. However, he was also responsible for a practical task: the reorganization of the film industry. Andreotti led by an Act of Parliament to give the government more power over the economy, helping the industry to produce, in 1954, about 200 films a year, while Italy, the largest film producer in the world after the United States. States ..

His uninhibited attitude towards artistic production contrasted with that of his more traditional colleagues: "The more legs and less cloths" then sang censored Umberto D 1952 film Vittorio De Sica, the sad story of struggle retirees. His wishes were respected as the industry away from the disaster carefully neo-realism of the post-war comedy with slightly spicy and sub-Of epics, located in the old with the cast of thousands of Roman ladies plump Thousand section . This relaxed pragmatism has become his trademark. This allowed him to move from left to right and again it is not surprising, in particular.

In 1954, after the death of De Gasperi, Andreotti became his own man, he organized his own supporters and became Minister of the Interior Minister of the Interior in the first of many governments led by Amintore Fanfani. Between 1955 and 1958 he was Minister of Finance, who was then Minister of Defence, who held the position from 1959 to 1966 - still and motionless - while premiers occurred Antonio Segni (1959), Fernando Tambroni ( 1960), Fanfani (1960-1962), Giovanni Leone (1963) and Aldo Moro (1963-1966).

then went to the Ministry of Industry (1966-1968). Outside the government between 1968 and 1972, was "lost" (or fortunately Supreme ruse) the last day of the first center-left government, the student revolt, the revival of the militancy of the working class (the warm autumn 1969) and the first wave of terrorism. However, he was far from inactive. As leader of the Democratic caucus, which has played a leading role and mediation incessant infighting between factions of the party.

In early 1960, he was a pillar of the right of the party, whose main objective was to prevent the formation of a coalition government with the Socialist Party - the

center sinistra

(center-left). At the last minute, the light foot Andreotti shifted their support and gathered around Moro and Fanfani, the architects of the new coalition, which sought to reform the country, while isolating the Communists.

Andreotti had thrown its weight behind the new center-left coalition in 1963 only after ensuring that it was acceptable to those whose consent is considered essential: the United States and the Vatican. He knew well. As Defence Minister, Andreotti is the politician closest Americans. As a personal friend of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini, who was about to become Pope Paul VI, who was intimately familiar with the thinking of the Vatican. Andreotti supported developments after the completion of the maximum consensus.

In 1972, the Socialist Party withdrew its support for the government and the coalition of center-left has ended. Displayed a period of great political uncertainty. Without the Socialists, it was extremely difficult to form a stable government - even by Italian standards. Andreotti has emerged as Prime Minister (1972-1973), which has a low center-right coalition, strengthening his image as the scourge conservative left, whether communist or socialist.

It was a time of great change: the end of the long boom, the oil crisis and the end of the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchange rates. Italy, a country with little energy resources and a weak currency, reeled under the impact. Terrorism has intensified, such as organized crime. But it was also a period of rapid modernization. Workers and women gained new rights was legalized, the central government was returned divorce. Government "right" Andreotti not firmly opposed to these changes. In practice, they have been provided.

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