วันพฤหัสบดีที่ 24 พฤศจิกายน พ.ศ. 2554

. football at the 1936 Olympic Games


of Italy Games was won after winning a tournament plagued by controversy and harassment Nazi

The Nazis knew the power of football. It encourages people to play and has overseen the growth of clubs across the country, part of its efforts to build an attack, a nation regulated. Before that flourished under the Empire, however, first broke the game apart and rearranged, with clubs and church workers of the execution abolished and replaced by an equipment operates along lines compatible with the Nazi movement.

is, of course, meant sports clubs were banned from the selection of Jewish athletes - but for football that the decree was not imposed until after the 1936 Olympics by fear that the discrimination was so obvious that the growing support of activists around the world calling for a boycott of the Games in Berlin (in preparation for the Games with more experience and image-German cities temporarily removed all signs anti-Jewish and other visible signs of persecution). The Nazis wanted the Games to go ahead and have been particularly concerned for football to be included - not just the propaganda value of a German victory in the most popular sport in the world, but because it needed the money, football is the sport of a guarantee to fill the stadiums.

football was settled by the 1932 Olympics in Los Angeles in the midst of discussions on the definition of amateurism and the U.S. organizers will not help the sport take root in the land of grid and FIFA did not want to hurt something the brightness of the World Cup, the first edition of what had taken place two years earlier. The German organizers have managed to be restored for the Games in Berlin and wanted to expand the tournament to include more teams, but in the end only 16 were presented. In April 1936, the organizers have even written to the Football Association to invite a British team, which had not entered the Games since their humiliating 3-1 defeat to Norway in 1920. Britain had stayed in the 1920's to complain about rude contempt of other pure amateurism.

Although the AF of Scotland and Wales were, as now, be wary of undermining their autonomy, contributing to a British team together, all four home nations has finally agreed to attend the event in 1936 - but all insisted that only players who met the definition of amateurism UK can be selected. The team, led by Bernard Joy Casuals FC, consisting of 14 English players, four Scots and Welsh and a pair of Northern Ireland. The manual given to each player in his call-up gives an idea of ??how it was amateur, with the British Olympic Association (BOA), which states that the cost of traveling players got together and still play, but he warned players to bring their own toilet soap. ? As noted by Steve Menary in his fine book, GB, BOA chief, wrote to each player to notify the called and had the postscript to his letter follows: "Like a month ago before leaving Berlin, s' you please take a little exercise. "


official British position as co-favorites with Germany, although this reflects the complacency of the two countries more than the current state of the game world, as will be evident. Britain did not begin his campaign until the end of the first week after stuffing the opening match between Italy and the United States. The Italians, with a completely different side that won the 1934 World Cup, but with the same director, Vittorio Pozzo led the United States and won 1-0 in the frame with an incident that could have been a way to establish stereotypes that persist today: the defender Achille Piccini two players sounded so bad that the Americans were unable to continue and when the referee has involved German, Italian players around him, covered his eyes and raised his arms to the side, lavished little more than their opponents. Incredibly, the referee was so surprised and / or intimidated that she forgot to send the Italians before allowing play to continue.

Germany was one of the teams in Europe at least until the 1920s, when its director, Otto Nerz become a force with which to consider. They made their debut in competition the day after the Italy v USA and delighted local fans by sweeping to a 9-0 victory over Luxembourg. It was a devastating Nazi officials decided they should invite Adolf Hitler to the next game - the Führer was not a football fan and had never been in a game, but probably motivated their lackeys, who Germany wants to be associated with the resounding victory of the staff, especially as Nerz was a member of the Nazi Party's leading, who joined shortly after Hitler's accession to power in 1933.

Hitler duly presented to the next part, with Joseph Goebbels, Hermann Goering, Rudolf Hess and 55,000 spectators, anticipating the destruction of justice of Norway. Before the final whistle, however, the Fuhrer left his first football game and the last in a powerful impetus, such as those below achieved a shock 2-0 win.

Triumph Norwegian

was partly due to the technical direction of Asbjorn Halvorsen, who had taken the time to play at Hamburg for the management of their country of origin. "He was ahead of its time," says Matti Goksøyr sports historian at the Norwegian University of Sport Sciences. "He trained players very astute tactician and better physical health was at a time when many coaches are still not adapt well to changes in the addition of the offside law, the players were very motivated to this game -. Captain Jorgen Juve, was also the sports editor of the newspaper Tidens Tegna in Oslo and has been publishing a daily tournament. You can see how his skepticism toward the German grew more and more complains militarism on the uniforms of the Games and how to have too much to your taste. This game is one of the most famous sporting history of Norway and, of course, its symbolic power is particularly strong during the Nazi occupation during the war. "

Germany were out and the next day, Britain also eliminated, beaten 5-4 by Poland, though the Poles had missed their best player, Ernst Wilimowski because of its refusal to reduce consumption of alcohol. Britain had started their campaign with a 2-0 victory over China abroad, but were no match for Poland, which contributed to a 5-1 lead.

Britain returned only when the Poles and transferred to a very difficult game, particularly Queen Park, John Gardiner, who drew the scorn of the crowd. "The Poles were very lively and gave the British defenders time harassment," reported The Guardian. "People Gardiner annoying by their heavy and there were some boos when he rolls on God." They referred to Hubert Gad Polish front, so that what appeared to be a great achievement of Nietzsche is in fact the only known case a typo in the Guardian.

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